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Link Power Budgetting

10.Calculation of link margin

1.Down link rain attenuation   Rain fall introduces attenuation by absorption and scattering of signal energy, and the absorptive attenuation introduces noise.
                 Effective noise temp of rain as
                                           Train =TA(1-(1/A))
Where TA is known as apparent absorber temperature. It is a measured parameter, which is a function of many factors, including physical temperature of rain, and scattering effect of the rain, and the scattering effect of the cell on the thermal noise incident up on it. The value of the apparent absorber temperature lies between 270 and 290 K .
Total sky noise temperature is the clear sky temperature plus the rain temperature
                                           TSky= Tcs+TRAIN
Where TCs is the clear-sky noise temperature

2.Receiver antenna pointing loss  When a satellite link is established, the ideal situation is to have the earth station and satellite antennas aligned for maximum gain. There are two possible sources of off axis loss , one at the satellite and one at the earth station . The off axis loss at the satellite is taken in to account by designing the link for operation on actual satellite antenna contour. The off axis losses at the earth station is referred to as the antenna pointing loss.

Antenna pointing losses are usually only a few tenths of a decibel.

3.Eb/No required for BER of 1/107  It is Signal to noise ratio required to achieve Bit Error Ratio of 1 error bit per 107 message bits. 

4.Down link C/No (dB Hz)   It is the down link carrier to noise ratio. It can be calculated as follows.
Down link C/No(dB Hz) = Satellite operating EIRP - Downlink path loss - Down link rain attenuation - Receiving antenna pointing loss + Receiver G/T +228.6. ……………………………….[15]

Example : Calculate Down link C/No(dB Hz) for the Satellite operating EIRP =-6.23 dB W, Downlink path loss =195.74 dB, Down link rain attenuation=0 dB, Receiving antenna pointing loss = 0.70 dB, Receiver G/T =22.58(dB/K)
Solution
Down link C/No(dB Hz) = Satellite operating EIRP - Downlink path loss - Down link rain attenuation - Receiving antenna pointing loss + Receiver G/T +228.6.
                                        = -6.23-195.74-0-0.70+22.58+228.6
                                        = 48.51 dB Hz

5.Over all Down link C/No (dB Hz)   It is the some of carrier to noise ratio at the down link and carrier to noise ratio at the up link. It can be calculated as follows

Over all Downlink(C/N0) (dB Hz)= -10*LOG (10-(C/No)U+10-(C/No)D)…………..[16]
Here
                 (C/No)U = Up link C/N ratio.
                 (C/No)D = Downlink C/N ratio.
It is the effective C/N ratio of the total system (Transmitter & receiver ) 

Find over all carrier to noise ratio of the satellite Up link C/N ratio = 61.95, Downlink C/N ratio= 48.51                
Over all Downlink(C/N0) (dB Hz)= -10*LOG (10-(C/No)U+10-(C/No)D)
                                                      = 48.32

6.Available Eb/No   It is the ratio of signal to noise ratio of the system. It can be calculated as follows.
           Available Eb/NO = over all downlink (C/No) / Input data rate
           Available Eb/NO (dB)= Over all downlink (C/No)(dB) - Input data rate (dB)
                                            = Over all downlink(C/No)(dB) – 10log (input data rate in KB*103).……………………………………[17]

Find Available Eb/NO (dB) for the satellite Over all downlink (C/No)(dB) =48.32, Input data rate (dB)= 9.6 KB/S.
Available Eb/NO (dB)= Over all downlink(C/No)(dB) – 10log (input data rate in KB*103                                          = 48.32- 10 log(9.6 * 103)
                                      = 8.63 dB.

7.Available link margin   It is the Difference between ‘Available Eb/No’ and ‘Eb/No required for BER of 1/10in dB.
                Available link margin = Available Eb/No(dB) – Eb/No required for BER of 1/107 (dB)………………………………………[18]
                                               

Find Available link margin for the satellite Available Eb/No(dB) =8.63 and Eb/No required for BER of 1/ 107 (dB) = 6.5.
Available link margin = Available Eb/No(dB) – Eb/No required for BER of   1/ 107 (dB)
                                 = 8.63-6.5        = 2 dB.

Reciever G-by-T
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