A typical Asus P5N32-E SLI motherboard with constituent components is given below:
1. PCI SLOT (Peripheral Component Interconnect) : PCI slots are used to Insert or install Add-on cards, such as LAN cards, Sound cards, Capture cards and TV tuner cards. There are usually anywhere from 1 to 6 PCI slots available on the motherboard(above board has 2 PCI slots. ), they have decreased in number and are being replaced by the PCI Express 1x slots.
2. PCI-E 16x Slot : the most common slot for Graphics cards, the PCI Express 16x slots provides 16 separate lanes or data transfer. These are the 16x speed versions, which are currently the fastest. PCI-E16x allows up to 4 GB/s of peak bandwidth per direction, and up to 8 GB/s concurrent bandwidth.
3. PCI-E 1x Slot : Single slot - In the PCIe 1.x generation, each lane (1x) carries 250 MB/s compared to 133 MB/s for the PCI slots. These can be used for expansion cards such as Sound Cards, or Ethernet Cards.
4. Northbridge: This allows communication between the CPU and the system memory and PCI-E slots. It is a focal Point of Motherboard and It is also called as Memory Controller Hub.
5. ATX 12V 2X and 4 Pin Power Connection : This is one of two power connections that supply power to the .motherboard This connection will come from your Power Supply.
6. CPU-Fan Connection: This is where the CPU fan will connect. Using this connection over one fof the power supply will allow the motherboard to control the speed of the fan, based on the CPU temperature.
7. Socket: This is where the CPU will plug in. The orange bracket that is surrounding it is used for high end heat sinks. It helps to support the weight of the heat sink.
8. DIMM slots: DIMM's are by far and away the most used memory types in today's computers. They vary in speeds and standards however and they need to match up to what your motherboard has been designed to take. The four standards of DIMM's being used at the moment are SDR (Single Data Rate), DDR (Double Data Rate), DDR2 and DDR3. The speeds of memory can vary between 66Mhz to 1600Mhz.
9. ATX Power Connector: This is the second of two power connections. This is the main power connection for the motherboard, and comes from the Power Supply.
10. IDE connectors or PATA connectors : IDE full form is Integrated Device Electronics. it supports IDE devices, such as Hard disks and CD and DVD drives. Most drives today come with SATA connections.
11. Southbridge: This is the controller for components such as the PCI slots, onboard audio, and USB connections.
12. SATA Connections : SATA full form is Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. These are connect with serial ATA devices, such as Hard disk drives and CD or DVD drives.
13. Front Panel Connections: this is where we will hook in the connections from the case. These are mostly the different lights on the case, such as power on, hard drive activity etc.
14. FDD Connection: The FDD is the Floppy Disk controller. Floppy Drive Connector is used to connect floppy drives. It supports two floppy drives.
15. External USB Connections: There are usually a couple of these ports located on each motherboard used for connecting pen drives and external hard drives, like Ipods or Mp3 players.
16. CMOS battery :This is the motherboard's battery, which is used to power the south bridge and the BIOS to save the setting, data and time.