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Noise Figure Measurement - A Practical Approach ## 2. Types of Noise sources:There are several types of noise sources in electrical circuits. However, we discuss only threee important noise sources here. 1. Thermal or Johnson Noise 2. Shot Noise 3. 1/f Noise (Also called Flicker or Pink noise) 1. Thermal Noise: This is the noise generated by thermal agitation of electrons in a conductor. The noise power, P, in watts, is given by P = kT D f, Where, k is Boltzmann's constant in joules per Kelvin, T is the conductor temperature in Kelvin, and D f is the bandwidth in hertz. Note that thermal noise power, per hertz, is equal throughout the frequency spectrum, depends only on k and T. The Thermal noise is also called Johnson’s noise. 2. Shot Noise: Shot noise normally occurs when there is a potential barrier (voltage differential). PN junction diode is an example that has potential barrier. When the electrons and holes cross the barrier, shot noise is produced. For example, a diode, a transistor, and vacuum tube will all produce Shot noise. On the other hand, a resistor normally does not produce Shot noise since there is no potential barrier built within a resistor. Current flowing through a resistor will not exhibit any fluctuations. However, current flowing through a diode produces small fluctuations. This is due to electrons (in turn, the charge) arriving in quanta, one electron at a time. The current flow is not continuous, but limited by the quantum of the electron charges. When a mean current I flows, Shot noise leads to current fluctuations given by I Where, e (1.6 x 10-19 coulombs). is the electronic charge. Shot noise is proportional to the current passing through the devise. 3. 1/f (one-over-f) Noise: 1/f noise is found in many natural phenomena such as nuclear radiation, electron flow through a conductor, or even in the environment. In electrical engineering, it is called also Flicker noise. 1/f noise is refers to a time series with random fluctuations. The power spectra S(f) as a function of the frequency f is given by S(f) = 1/f Where, b is very close to 1. However, note that this formula may not be applicable under all circumstances. Flicker noise is more prominent in FETs, and bulky resistors. d. White Noise: White noise is the noise that has constant magnitude of power over frequency. Examples of White noise are Thermal noise, and Shot noise. | ||||||||

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