RF Co-axial Cable Insertion and Return Loss Measurement
RF cables are used in transmission of rf and microwave signals. The article provides a step-by-step way of measuring insertion and return loss of a coaxial (coax) cable. Relationship between return loss and VSWR is given.

RF Measurement Instruments – Spectrum Analyzer
Unlike time domain measurements, which use Oscilloscope, frequency domain measurements use Spectrum Analyzer. The article describes the characteristics and applications of Spectrum Analyzers, and the features that one may need to consider while buying a spectrum analyzer.

RF Measurements – Noise Figure Measurement
Electronic equipment, whether it’s a passive component like cable or an active component like an amplifier, contributes to the overall noise of the signal as it passes through the component. Therefore, the measurement of noise in electronic systems has become a very important component of RF measurements. The article describes several methods of noise measurement, and the features that one need to consider while procuring noise-measuring equipment.

Time and Frequency Standards - An Introduction
Time and frequency standards are an essential part of world standards for a long time. Essentially, all time standards are traceable to the world standards. The article delves upon the primary, secondary, and tertiary standards available, such as Cesium, Rubidium, and Crystal standards. It also compares important aspects of these standards and provides some organizations involved in the manufacture or maintenance of these standards.

RF Coaxial Cables – Construction and Applications
RF Coaxial cables are widely used in radio frequency communications. The article describes the construction of a typical coaxial cable, and important properties. Applications of rf coaxial cables are also provided.

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