Cellular Phones : Types Of Mobile Generations
Explained 1G To 4G
3. Cell Phone Technologies
It refers to first generation wireless telephone technology.
This is an analog standard for telecommunication, which
was introduced in 1980s and was later replaced by 2G.
It refers to second-generation wireless telephone technologies
it was launched in Finland in the year 1991.2G technologies
use digital radio signals.
Different 2G technologies: Based on
what type of multiplexing (process of combining multiple
digital data streams it one signal) is used, 2G technologies
can be divided into three categories:
a. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
b. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
c. FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
Advantages to 2G over 1G:
1. These technologies enable various mobile phone networks
to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages,
multimedia messages (MMS)
2. All the text messages are digitally encrypted. Digital
encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way
that only intended receiver can receive and read it.
3. Signals are digitally coded which improves the voice
and reduced noise in line
4. 2G technologies can pack more calls per amount of
bandwidth than 1G.
5. 2G cell phone units are generally smaller than 1 G
units as they emit less radio power.
3.3. 2.5G General packet
radio service (GPRS)
The major impetus for 2.5G is the "always-on" capability.
Being packet based, 2.5G technologies allow for the use of infrastructure
and facilities only when a transaction is required, rather than
maintaining facilities in a session-like manner. This provides
tremendous infrastructure efficiency and service delivery improvements.
Using GPRS as a bearer for WAP, for instance, will allow
for the use of WAP on a per-transaction rather than a per-minute-of-use
basis. More importantly perhaps is the ability for GPRS to allow
for autonomous service realization through the always-on capability.
For example, a GPRS customer could receive content or services
without actually manually invoking a service or transaction.
This has significant implications for mobile commerce and location
GPRS is a service commonly associated with 2.5G technologies.
It has data transmission rates of 28 kbps or higher. GPRS came
after the development of the Global System for Mobile (GSM)
service, which is classified as 2G technologies. GPRS could
provide data rates from 56 kbps up to 115 kbps
3.4. 2.75G Enhanced Data rates
for GSM Evolution (EDGE)
EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and
it is an upgrade that provides a potential three-fold increase
in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks. The specification achieves
higher data-rates (up to 236.8 kbit/s) by switching to more
sophisticated methods of coding (8PSK), within existing GSM
3.5. 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications
It refers to third generation of standard mobile phones and
mobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International
Mobile Telecommunication-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the
International Telecommunication Union.
3G technologies are intended for the true multimedia cell
phone typically called smart phones. It allows simultaneous
use of speech and data services and higher data rates it comes
with enhancements over previous wireless technologies, like
high-speed transmission, advanced multimedia access and global
roaming. 3G helps to simultaneously transfer both voice data
(a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information,
exchanging e-mail, and instant messaging).
The standard supported mobile/portable voice, images, data,
and video communications at up to 2 Mbps (local area access)
or 384 Kbps (wide area broadcast).
Some features provided by 3G technologies are
1. Several times higher data speed. 3G networks have potential
speed up to 3Mbps
The 3.5G solution promises a data download speed of up to
14Mbps (megabits per second) and an upload speed of up to 1.8Mbps.
Compared to that, the mere 384Kbps (kilobits per second) download,
and uploads up to 64Kbps that a 3G network now offer. 3.5G rely
on the new High-Speed Downlink Packet Access protocol, which
are responsible fast transfer speeds over those of 3G.
3.7. 4G are short for Fourth
(4th) Generation Technology
4G Technology is basically the extension in the 3G technologies with more bandwidth and services offers in the 3G. 4G technologies are the future technologies that are mostly in their maturity period. The expectation for the 4G technologies is basically the high-quality audio/video streaming over end-to-end Internet Protocol.
4G provides additional services compared to 3G. The purpose of 4G is to provide high speed, high quality, and to improve network security, and internet data services over IP. The key technologies used are MIMO (multiple inputs multiple outputs) and OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing).
The maximum speed with 3G technology is 2 Mbps. But in general, there is chance of getting speed is 500 Kbps to 1.5 Mbps, based on your carrier, the location of the cell tower, congestion, etc. The max speed of the 4G network is 100Mbits/sec to the high mobility communication (such as from cars and trains). The low mobility communications (such as pedestrians or stationary) the speed is 1Gbits/sec. The standards of 4G are WiMAX and LTE (Long Term Evolution) which is upgraded to the UMTS technology. The Newer generation of mobile phones is designed with backward compatibility so that a 4G mobile can use the standards of 3G as well as 2G even.
3.8. 5G (5th Generation) Technology
5G is the evolution of the mobile network. Speed can be notified as biggest benefit of 5G. That is going to make a huge difference in downloading, gaming, or any other with "Zero-lag". 5G technology includes:
Massive MIMO with beam steering
Features of 5G Technology:
Latency is 4 milliseconds in ideal circumstances and at one millisecond for Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication (URLLC).
Bandwidth of 1,000 per unit area.
high-speed, depending on the device, up to 10 GB per second