5. The first 3 octets of a MAC address provide the manufacturer of the NIC (Network Interface Card). For example, consider the MAC address given below:

  1. 00-22-75-76-D7-91

  2. 00-22-75 will uniquely identify the manufacturer of the NIC, which in this case turns out to be Belkin International Inc.

  3. However, please note that identifying the manufacturer is only half a job, and you may need to try different drivers from that manufacturer to troubleshoot the problem

6. Dual-channel-enabled memory controllers in a PC system architecture utilize two 64-bit data channels. Dual channel should not be confused with double data rate (DDR), in which data exchange happens twice per DRAM clock. The two technologies are independent of each other and many motherboards use both, by using DDR memory in a dual-channel configuration. Dual-channel architecture requires a dual-channel-capable motherboard and two or more DDR, DDR2 SDRAM, or DDR3 SDRAM memory modules.

7. Error-correcting code memory (ECC memory)

  1. a. ECC is a type of computer data storage that can detect and correct the more common kinds of internal data corruption.

  2. b. ECC memory is used in most computers where data corruption cannot be tolerated under any circumsta nces, such as for scientific or financial computing. Error-Correcting Code (ECC) memory is often seen in high-end motherboards that provide important services or software functions. Unlike normal parity memory, ECC memory can find and fix errors.

  3. c. ECC memory generally costs more, so you usually see motherboards designed for ECC memory when there's a specific need. ECC memory maintains a memory system effectively free from single-bit errors: the data that is read from each word is always the same as the data that had been written to it, even if a single bit actually stored, or more in some cases, has been flipped to the wrong state.

  4. d. ECC memory is used where the data needs to be very accurate, and the memory is required to have self correcting capability. It adds cost to the memory module and used in server level computers where data accuracy is very important. Some non-ECC memory with parity support allows errors to be detected, but not corrected; otherwise errors that may occur are not detected.

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