17. To obtain BIOS string ID:
a. Power off the system
b. Either unplug your keyboard or hold down one of the
keys on the keyboard
c. Power-on the system and you should get a keyboard
d. The string in the lower left hand corner of your computer
screen represents the BIOS String ID.
18. It is also possible to read the BIOS information by going
to the BIOS set-up of the PC by pressing appropriate key (usually
Del key) during boot up.
19.Various POST (Power On Self Test) error codes and their
description is as below:
Code 01: Undetermined problem
Code 02: Power Supply error
Code 1xx: System board errors
Code 2xx: Memory (RAM) errors
Code 3xx: Keyboard errors
Code 6xx: Diskette Drive errors
x is any single digit integer.
20. The following are true about backup:
a. Full backup: Here all files that have been chosen
for backup are backed up, irrespective of whether the archive
bit is set or not set. Archive bit is set (ON) after backup.
b. Incremental backup: Here only the files that have
been created or have changed since the previous full or
incremental backup will be backed up. The archive bit is
set after a file is backed up.
c. Incremental backup will backup files that have changed
since previous full or incremental backup.
d. Differential backup: Here, the files that have changed
or created since the last full backup will be backed up.
Note that, unlike Incremental backup, the archive bit is
not set on a differential backup. The result of this is
that the next differential backup will include files that
were backed up during earlier Differential backups.
21. UPS usually contains a filter to smoothen the noise,
and this filter is called noise filter.
4.3 Given a scenario, troubleshoot hard
drives and RAID arrays with appropriate tools
1. If the CMOS setup is not properly setup the computer may
ignore or not look at the CD-ROM as a bootable option. Verify
in the CMOS that your settings are properly set to boot from
the CD-ROM drive.
2. The Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) allows
the computer to store the Real Time Clock (RTC)and other device
information even after the computer is switched off and on.
This is achieved by using a battery just for CMOS.
3. Generally, these settings will be under the boot options.
Setup your boot options similar to the below example.
1 - Floppy / LS120
2 - CD-ROM
3 - Network (if available)
4 - Hard Disk Drive
4. If CD-ROM is listed after a device that is bootable it
will boot from the other device before the CD-ROM. Verify that
the devices before CD-ROM, such as floppy, do not have bootable
media in them.
5. If the SCSI bus termination is not done, SCSI devices
on the bus will not function properly. This is due to reflection
of the signals at the end of the bus. To prevent this, both
ends of the SCSI bus needs to be terminated. If one end of the
SCSI bus is terminated, you may find intermittent problems.
Never terminate the bus at a device connected in between.
6. If you are creating a Striped volume on a new Windows
2000 machine, it can only be created on dynamic disks. However,
if you are upgrading a Windows NT computer to Windows 2000,
any existing stripe set will be supported.
7. If you are finding that the Logical Disk > %Free Space
counter is less than 10%, you might need to make additional
free space available. This can first be done cleaning up the
disk of any unwanted files, duplicate files etc. If required,
additional physical disk may be provided.
8. Some of the important System Monitor counters are:
a. Memory>Available Mbytes: measures the amount of physical
memory that is available. Typically > 4MB. If less than
4 MB, consider adding more memory.
b. Memory>Pages/Sec: Shows the number of times that the
disk has been accessed, because requested information was
not available in memory. If the value of the counter is
not below 20, you should add more memory. A value of 4 or
5 is typical.
c. Paging File>%Usage: Indicates the % of allocated page
file utilization. Should be less than 99%.
d. Processor>%Processor Time: measure the time that the
processor is busy. Should be typically less than 80%
e. Processor>Interrupts/Sec: Indicates the average number
of hardware interrupts that the processor receives each
second. If more than 3,500, you can suspect a program or
f. PhysicalDisk>%Disk Time: Measures the amount of time
that the physical disk is busy servicing read or write requests.
If more than 90%, you can improve the performance by adding
another disk channel.
g. PhysicalDisk>%Current Disk Queue Length: indicates
the number of pending disk requests that need to be processed.
The value should be less than 2. The disk problems might
arise from less memory, resulting in usage of excessive
paging. Ensure that the memory is sufficient before attending
to the disk problem.
8. LogicalDisk > %Free Space counter: Indicates the amount
of logical disk's free disk space. Typical value is 10% or above.
9. If you have a standard desktop PC that uses integrated
drive electronics (IDE) disk drives, then these will be detected
during setup. If, however, you use SCSI disks or have Redundant
Array of Independent Disk (RAID) storage systems, you will see,
shortly after the reboot, the following line of text displayed
at the bottom of the screen:
10. "Press F6 if you need to install a third party SCSI or
RAID driver..." Pressing F6 will start a dialog that allows
you to configure and install the drivers for your SCSI or other
disk subsystem controllers. This option is usually used on server
platforms that use large-capacity, high-speed, fault-tolerant
disk subsystems. For most PCs, however, you won't need to use
11. If you want to format a drive and also make it bootable,
you need to format with /s switch. By issuing this command,
the boot files IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, COMMAND.COM get copied to
12. Important RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks)
details are given below:
a. RAID 0: This has striping but no redundancy of data.
It offers the best performance but no fault-tolerance.
b. RAID 1: This is also known as disk mirroring. It consists
of two or more drives that duplicate the storage of data.
There is no striping. Read performance is better since either
disk can be read at the same time.
c. RAID 2: It uses disk striping across disks with some
disks storing error checking and correcting (ECC) information.
RAID 2 is hardly used because it is expensive and does not
provide fault tolerance like other forms of RAID levels.
d. RAID 3: It uses disk striping and dedicates one drive
to storing parity information. The embedded error checking
(ECC) information is used to detect errors.
e. RAID 4: Block-level striping with dedicated parity.
RAID-4 offers no advantage over RAID 3
f. RAID 5: Uses block-level striping with distributed
parity. Thus, all read and write operations can be overlapped.
RAID-5 stores parity information but not redundant data
(but parity information can be used to reconstruct data).
RAID 5 requires at least three disks for the array. It's
suitable for multi-user systems in which performance is
13. It is obvious that you can get shock is due to sudden
discharge of static electricity. Since the operator is touching
the memory module when the discharge happened, it is most likely
that the memory module may have internally damaged. This damage
may or may not show up immediately. In any case, it always recommended
to replace the statically damaged module with a good one. Follow
anti-static precautions before touching any electronic components
inside a PC.
15. If the hard-disk is making sound, the most likely problem
is that the hard disk read/write head is scratching the disk
surface. It often results in the total failure of the disk.
If you find that you can still read/write to the disk, backup
the hard disk and replace immediately.
16. Low level formatting will erase the data on a hard drive
17. A hard disk should never be low level formatted at the
customer premises. It is highly recommended that it is done
at the manufacturer's or at any authorized center.
It is very cumbersome to change the partition sizes, once
the hard disk is partitioned and used. It may require backing
up all the data and restoring after repartitioning.