CHKDSK (Check Disk): CHKDSK command, one of DOS commands,
examines your hard drive for error conditions and reports the
total size of the disk, how many files are stored there, and
the space remaining. CHKDSK also reports the total amount of
conventional memory in your system and the amount of conventional
memory available. Note that CHKDSK can't report extended memory.
DFRAG: The DFRAG.EXE is included with DOS6.0 and later. DEFRAG
utility arranges the clusters of data on the hard drive to achieve
better performance by placing all of the clusters for a given
file together in a contiguous order. DEFRAG does not do any
repair on your disk, and errors, if any will remain on the disk.
BACKUP: DOS has a backup utility since version 2.0.
The command "format a: /s" can be used to format the
floppy disk in drive A, and at the same time make it bootable.
To make floppy in drive A bootable, the command SYS A:
should be given.
1. It does: Loads basics Input/ Output routines for the
2. Default Attributes: Hidden / System/ Read Only 3.
Is it required for OS Start up: YES
1. It does: Defines System File locations
2. Default Attributes: Hidden / System/ Read Only
3. Is it required for OS Start up: YES
To stop a single process on a Windows 7 workstation from
the command line
You have to run the Command Prompt as Administrator. To do
this just right click command prompt from "All Programs >
Accessories > Command Prompt" then select "Run as Administrator"
on the pop-up menu.
On the Command Prompt, perform the following.
1. Type "task list" and press enter. It will show you
a list of all the running processes.
2. Now you can End any particular process by executing
the "Task kill" command. For Example, to kill Chrome just
Task kill /IM chrome.exe /F
Where: /IM - Kill by Image Name , /F - Kill the process
Of course, you can also do this using Task Manager without
going to the command prompt.
You can have "Recovery Console" as a start up option by typing
\i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons at the command prompt, after switching
to the CD ROM drive letter. To install the Recovery Console,
follow these steps:
1. Insert the Windows XP CD into the CD-ROM drive.
2. Click Start, and then click Run.
3. In the Open box, type d:\i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons
where d is the drive letter for the CD-ROM drive. In the
case of 'Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition,
type d:\amd64\winnt32.exe /cmdcons where d is the drive
letter for the CD-ROM drive.
4. A Windows Setup Dialog Box appears. The Windows Setup
Dialog Box describes the Recovery Console option. To confirm
the installation, click Yes.
5. Restart the computer. The next time that you start
your computer, "Microsoft Windows Recovery Console" appears
on the startup menu.
1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate operating
system features and tools
1. MSCONFIG, short for "Microsoft System Configuration Utility"
is designed to help you troubleshoot problems with your computer,
MSCONFIG can also be used to ensure that your computer boots
faster. Every time you boot your computer a lot of "hidden"
programs load in the background. Some of these hidden programs
are essential, but most aren't. Turning off some of these hidden
programs (or services) can significantly increase your computer's
performance and reliability.
2. The Device Manager provides the status of the devices
installed in the system. The Device Manager lists all the hardware
devices installed on your system. You can also update any existing
drivers, as well as change the hardware settings. You use Add/
Remove Hardware to install new hardware. Accessibility options
is primarily used to configure the keyboard, display, and mouse
options on a computer to accommodate the users who are physically
handicapped. The Add/ Remove Programs is used to install / uninstall
3rd party software. This is also used for installing / uninstalling
Windows 2000 optional components. To connect a USB device,
a. The computer supports USB.
b. The USB should be enabled in the BIOS,
If both the above conditions are met, USB Controller is listed
in the Device Manager. If it's not listed in the Device Manager,
you can suspect that the USB was not enabled in the BIOS.
3. USB devices are hot pluggable. There is no need to reboot
the computer. If the drive files for the USB device is available
already with the operating system, the system will automatically
load the drivers for the device. Otherwise, the driver files
need to be provided separately.
4. You can access Computer Management screen through:
a. MyComputer on Desk Top -> Right Click -> Manage
b. Start -> Programs -> Administrative Tools ->
One of the frequently used resource in "Computer Management"
screen is System Tools. System tools contain the following:
a. Event Viewer
b. System Information
c. Performance logs
d. Device Manager
e. Shared folders
f. Local Users and Groups
These are very useful tools to a system administrator.
5. You can access Task Manager by pressing < Alt > <
Ctrl > < Del >. The applications tab lists all the
applications that are currently running on the computer. The
current status of the application is also displayed as either
"Running" or "not responding" or "stopped".
6. You can enable memory dump to a file when your system
is about to crash due to Stop Error (such as Blue Screen)The
following types of memory dumps are available with Windows XP/2000:
a. Complete memory dump
b. Kernel memory dump
c. Small memory dump (64 KB)
7. You can start the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard by
clicking Start on the computer running Windows XP, pointing
to All Programs, Accessories, System Tools, and then clicking
Files and Settings Transfer Wizard.
8. The System Preparation (Sysprep) tool prepares an installation
of Windows® for duplication, auditing, and customer
delivery. Duplication, also called imaging, enables you to capture
a customized Windows image that you can reuse throughout an
organization. Audit mode enables you to add additional device
drivers or applications to a Windows installation. After you
install the additional drivers and applications, you can test
the integrity of the Windows installation. Sysprep also enables
you to prepare an image to be delivered to a customer. When
the customer boots Windows, Windows Welcome starts.
9. Windows Performance Monitor is a Microsoft Management
Console (MMC) snap-in that combines the functionality of previous
stand-alone tools including Performance Logs and Alerts, Server
Performance Advisor, and System Monitor. It provides a graphical
interface for customizing Data Collector Sets and Event Trace
Sessions. Windows Performance Monitor enables you to track the
performance impact of applications and services, and to generate
alerts or take action when user-defined thresholds for optimum
performance are exceeded.
10. Always Notify option in User Account Control, which is
the selection at the top of the slider and is identical to the
default mode in Windows Vista. It will show the user any changes
to the computer either by a program or the user themselves.
Although the default mode would notify for programs that wanted
to change the computer settings, it would not notify if the
users accidentally changed something.
11. Sync Center allows you to check the results of your recent
sync activity if you've set up your computer to sync files with
a network server (often called offline files). When you sync
with a network server, you can access files by keeping synced
copies of those files on your computer, even when the network
server is unavailable. Sync Center can tell you if the files
synced successfully or if there are any sync errors or warnings.
To launch sync center, just open your control panel, then click