4.5 Describe the purpose of configuration
Wire schemes: A networks requires lot of wiring depending
on its complexity. Mostly wiring in hidden in walls and
ceiling therefore documentation of wiring should be kept
up to date. It should include where wires are placed and
what wires are used. This documentation will help in troubleshooting.
Network Maps: Network maps of both physical and logical
topologies should be documented. Physical topology documentation
will include location of network devices, ports used etc.
and logical topology documentation will contain VLAN networks.
Well-functioning networks are characterized by documented
identities and other information related to user. If
an internet based application provided by an organization
require users to register with them using name and email
id then this information provided by the user should
be secure and not shared with any third party without
is stored and will be accessed by whom, it should also
state if information will be shared with third party.
Acceptable use: This policy restricts how a computer
network and other devices and systems will be used.
It states what users can do and what not with technology
infrastructure of an organization. It is signed by the
employees before they begin working on any systems.
This protects the organization from employees misusing
the systems or network. The policy may put limits on
personal use of resources, and resource access time.
Security policy: A company's security policy outlines
the security measures to be taken. Implementing the
security policy is the first thing that needs to be
2. procedures: These describe how tasks are performed.
Like admin is supposed to take backups, how often backups
are to be taken, where to store them etc.
3. configurations: Both software and hardware configuration
should be documented.
4. Regulations: All the restrictions with its legal consequences
Cable management: Proper documentation of networks
cable infrastructure should be maintained. This will
help in troubleshooting. It may include diagram of network's
conduit system, location of punch down blocks etc.
Asset Management: It is procedure to track network
components and managing thir lifecycle. It includes
Baseline: It is used to measure network performance
by setting a base line for comparison.
4.6 Explain different methods and rationales
for network performance optimization.
QoS stands for quality of service. In SOHO environment,
QoS is normally set at router level. If you want to
enforce QoS policies in your network, make sure you
use a router, which is equipped with QoS software.
Load balancing is the process of distributing a server
or network load over a multiple servers or networks.
An example of load balancing is a clustered solution
where each server in a clustered pool shares the load
as per the design parameters.
High availability is incorporated in the system design
so that the uptime of a system is maintained as per
the designed standards under all circustances. High
availability is usually design specific where as the
fault tolorence is device or network specific.
Caching improves network performance by locally caching
content, thereby limiting surges in traffic.
A VoIP telephony solution hosted by a service provider,
which interconnects with a company's existing telephone
system is known as Virtual PBX. A hosted PBX is one
that is hosted by the telephone company on behalf of
its customer. The important elements and the functions
of a VOIP network are given below:
a. IP phone: An IP phone is a telephone with
an integrated Ethernet connection. Although users
speak into a traditional analog handset (or headset)
on the IP phone, the IP phone digitizes the spoken
voice, packetizes it, and sends it out over a data
network (via the IP phone's Ethernet port).
b. Call agent A call agent is a repository for
a VoIP network's dial plan. For example, when a
user dials a number from an IP phone, the call agent
analyzes the dialled digits and determines how to
route the call toward the destination.
c. Gateway A gateway in a VoIP network acts as
a translator between two different telephony signaling
environments. In the figure, both gateways interconnect
a VoIP network with the PSTN. Also, the gateway
on the right interconnects a traditional PBX with
a VoIP network. PBX A Private Branch Exchange (PBX)
is a privately owned telephone switch traditionally
used in corporate telephony systems. Although a
PBX is not typically considered a VoIP device, it
can connect into a VoIP network through a gateway.
d. Analog phone An analog phone is a traditional
telephone, like you might have in your home. Even
though an analog phone is not typically considered
a VoIP device, it can connect into a VoIP network
via a VoIP or, as shown in the figure, via a PBX,
which is connected to a VoIP network.
e. SIP Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a
VoIP signaling protocol used to set up, maintain,
and tear down VoIP phone calls. Notice in the figure
that SIP is spoken between the IP phone and the
call agent to establish a call. The call agent then
uses SIP to signal a local gateway to route the
call, and that gateway uses SIP (across an IP WAN)
to signal the remote gateway (on the right) about
the incoming call.
f. RTP Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is
a Layer 4 protocol that carries voice (and interactive
video). Notice in the figure that the bi-directional
RTP stream does not flow through the call agent.