4.5 Describe the purpose of configuration
Wire schemes: A networks requires lot of wiring depending
on its complexity. Mostly wiring in hidden in walls and ceiling
therefore documentation of wiring should be kept up to date.
It should include where wires are placed and what wires are
used. This documentation will help in troubleshooting.
Network Maps: Network maps of both physical and logical topologies
should be documented. Physical topology documentation will include
location of network devices, ports used etc. and logical topology
documentation will contain VLAN networks.
Well-functioning networks are characterized by documented
and other information related to user. If an internet based
application provided by an organization require users to
register with them using name and email id then this information
provided by the user should be secure and not shared with
state what information is stored and will be accessed by
whom, it should also state if information will be shared
with third party.
Acceptable use: This policy restricts how a computer
network and other devices and systems will be used. It states
what users can do and what not with technology infrastructure
of an organization. It is signed by the employees before
they begin working on any systems. This protects the organization
from employees misusing the systems or network. The policy
may put limits on personal use of resources, and resource
Security policy: A company's security policy outlines
the security measures to be taken. Implementing the security
policy is the first thing that needs to be done.
2. procedures: These describe how tasks are performed. Like
admin is supposed to take backups, how often backups are to
be taken, where to store them etc.
3. configurations: Both software and hardware configuration
should be documented.
4. Regulations: All the restrictions with its legal consequences
Cable management: Proper documentation of networks cable
infrastructure should be maintained. This will help in troubleshooting.
It may include diagram of network's conduit system, location
of punch down blocks etc.
Asset Management: It is procedure to track network components
and managing thir lifecycle. It includes following steps:
Baseline: It is used to measure network performance by
setting a base line for comparison.
4.6 Explain different methods and rationales
for network performance optimization.
QoS stands for quality of service. In SOHO environment,
QoS is normally set at router level. If you want to enforce
QoS policies in your network, make sure you use a router,
which is equipped with QoS software.
Load balancing is the process of distributing a server
or network load over a multiple servers or networks. An
example of load balancing is a clustered solution where
each server in a clustered pool shares the load as per the
High availability is incorporated in the system design
so that the uptime of a system is maintained as per the
designed standards under all circustances. High availability
is usually design specific where as the fault tolorence
is device or network specific.
Caching improves network performance by locally caching
content, thereby limiting surges in traffic.
A VoIP telephony solution hosted by a service provider,
which interconnects with a company's existing telephone
system is known as Virtual PBX. A hosted PBX is one that
is hosted by the telephone company on behalf of its customer.
The important elements and the functions of a VOIP network
are given below:
a. IP phone: An IP phone is a telephone with an integrated
Ethernet connection. Although users speak into a traditional
analog handset (or headset) on the IP phone, the IP
phone digitizes the spoken voice, packetizes it, and
sends it out over a data network (via the IP phone's
b. Call agent A call agent is a repository for a
VoIP network's dial plan. For example, when a user dials
a number from an IP phone, the call agent analyzes the
dialled digits and determines how to route the call
toward the destination.
c. Gateway A gateway in a VoIP network acts as a
translator between two different telephony signaling
environments. In the figure, both gateways interconnect
a VoIP network with the PSTN. Also, the gateway on the
right interconnects a traditional PBX with a VoIP network.
PBX A Private Branch Exchange (PBX) is a privately owned
telephone switch traditionally used in corporate telephony
systems. Although a PBX is not typically considered
a VoIP device, it can connect into a VoIP network through
d. Analog phone An analog phone is a traditional
telephone, like you might have in your home. Even though
an analog phone is not typically considered a VoIP device,
it can connect into a VoIP network via a VoIP or, as
shown in the figure, via a PBX, which is connected to
a VoIP network.
e. SIP Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a VoIP
signaling protocol used to set up, maintain, and tear
down VoIP phone calls. Notice in the figure that SIP
is spoken between the IP phone and the call agent to
establish a call. The call agent then uses SIP to signal
a local gateway to route the call, and that gateway
uses SIP (across an IP WAN) to signal the remote gateway
(on the right) about the incoming call.
f. RTP Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a Layer
4 protocol that carries voice (and interactive video).
Notice in the figure that the bi-directional RTP stream
does not flow through the call agent.