The evil twin is another access point or base
station that uses the same SSID as an existing access
point. It attempts to fool users into connecting
to the wrong AP, compromising their wireless session.
Wardriving is the act of using a vehicle and
laptop to find open unsecured wireless networks
Rogue access points can be described as unauthorized
wireless access points/routers that allow access
to secure networks
war chalking: On finding an open WLAN user writes
a symbol on the structure nearby for others to know
the credentials of the network.
WEP cracking: Many utilites are available on
internet to find preshared key (PSK) by using mathematical
algorithms. These collect packets transmitted by
secure access point and use algorithm on them to
Distributed Denial of Service (DdoS): It is an
attack where multiple compromised systems (which
are usually infected with a Trojan) are used to
send requests to a single system causing target
machine to become unstable or serve its legitimate
users. A hacker begins a DDoS attack by exploiting
a vulnerability in one computer system and making
it the DdoS "master", also called as "zombie". It
is from the zombie that the intruder identifies
and communicates with other systems that can be
compromised. The intruder loads hacking tools on
the compromised systems. With a single command,
the intruder instructs the controlled machines to
launch one of many flood attacks against a specified
target. This causes Distributed Denial of Service
(DDoS) attack on the target computer.
Denial-of-service (DoS): These attacks, are explicit
attempts to block legitimate users system access
by reducing system availability. Any physical or
host-based intrusions are generally addressed through
hardened security policies and authentication mechanisms.
Although software patching defends against some
attacks, it fails to safeguard against DoS flooding
attacks, which exploit the unregulated forwarding
of Internet packets. Hackers use zombies to launch
DoS or DDoS attacks. The hacker infects several
other computers through the zombie computer. Then
the hacker sends commands to the zombie, which in
turn sends the commands to slave computers. The
zombie, along with slave computers start pushing
enormous amount of useless data to target computer,
making it unable to serve it legitimate purpose.
Smurf attack : It is a denial-of-service attack
that uses spoofed broadcast ping messages to flood
a target system
Man-In-The-Middle: These attacks intercept all
data between a client and a server. It is a type
of active interception. If successful, all communications
now go through the MITM attacking computer. The
attacking computer can at this point modify the
data, insert code, and send it to the receiving
computer. This type of eavesdropping is only successful
when the attacker can properly impersonate each
Virus: A computer virus attaches itself to a
program or file so it can spread from one computer
to another.Almost all viruses are attached to an
executable file, and it cannot infect your computer
unless you run or open the malicious program. It
is important to note that a virus cannot be spread
without a human action, (such as running an infected
program) to keep it going.
Worm: Worms spread from computer to computer,
but unlike a virus, it has the capability to travel
without any help from a person. The danger with
a worm is its capability to replicate itself. Unlike
Virus, which sends out a single infection at a time,
a Worm could send out hundreds or thousands of copies
of itself, creating a huge devastating effect.
Buffer overflow occurs when the input is more
than that allocated for that purpose. The system
doesn't know what to do with the additional input,
and it may result in freezing of the system, or
sometimes to take control of the system by a hacker.
By validating the inputs, it is possible to reduce
this vulnerability to a great extent.
Packet sniffing is a form of wire-tap applied
to computer networks instead of phone networks.
It came into vogue with Ethernet, which is known
as a "shared medium" network. This means that traffic
on a segment passes by all hosts attached to that
segment. Ethernet cards have a filter that prevents
the host machine from seeing traffic addressed to
other stations. Sniffing programs turn off the filter,
and thus see everyone traffic.