D) Basic concepts
1) Reactive and Proactive problem management activities:
a) Reactive problem management process
- Reactive problem management process activities
will typically be triggered in reaction to an incident
that has taken place.
- Reactive problem management complements incident
management activities by focusing on the underlying
cause of an incident to prevent its recurrence and identifying
workarounds when necessary.
b) Proactive problem management process
- Proactive problem management process activities
are triggered by activities seeking to improve services.
- Proactive problem management complements CSI activities
by helping to identify workarounds and improvement actions
that can improve the quality of a service.
2) Problem Models : handle problems that have not and
will not be resolved (e.g. the cost of a permanent resolution
is too high) by some pre-defined workaround
E) Problem Management Process Activities
Life Cycle of Problem Management is as follows:
1) Detecting Problems - identify problems in reactive / proactive
2) Logging Problems
a) Record all relevant problem details for a full historic
b) log in the problem record (link to the incidents)
3) Categorizing Problems: Categorize Problems in the same
way as incidents, using the same coding system, so the true
nature of the problem can be easily traced in the future and
meaningful management information can be had, and enables incidents
and problems to be more readily matched.
4) Prioritizing Problems - depends on impact(number of users
being affected) and urgency of the problem(how quickly the business
5) Investigating and Diagnosing Problems
a) Apply problem-solving techniques.
b) Use the CMS to help determine impact and pinpoint
and diagnose the exact point of failure.
c) Use the KEDB for problem-matching techniques to see
if the problem has occurred before and, if so, to find the
6) Identifying a Workaround - provides the workaround to
service desk for resolving the incident and reassesses the priority
7) Raising a Known Error Record
a) A known error is a problem with a documented root
cause and workaround.
b) Known error records should identify the related problem
record and document the status of actions being taken to
resolve the problem, its root cause and workaround.
c) All known error records should be stored in the known
error database (KEDB)
8) Problem Resolution - implement the solution through change
management (as emergency change)
9) Problem Closure - a permanent solution has been tested
and implemented so that the problem will not occur again (user
confirmation NOT needed).
10) Major Problem Review
After every major problem, conduct a lessons learned review
a) Things done right and wrong
b) What to do better in the future
c) How to prevent recurrence.
d) Whether there is any third-party responsibility and
if follow-up actions are needed.
F) Incident Management Process- Interfaces with other stages
of ITIL Service Lifecycle.
1) Interfaces with Service Design
a) Financial Management for IT services:
- Assists in assessing the impact of proposed resolutions
or workarounds, and pain value analysis
- Problem management provides information about the cost
of resolving and preventing problems.
- Used as input into the budgeting and accounting systems
and total cost of ownership calculations.
2) Interfaces with Service Design
a) Availability Management:
b) Capacity Management:
- Some problems will require investigation by capacity
management teams and Techniques.
- Problem management provides management information
on the quality of decisions made during the capacity
c) IT Service Continuity Management:
Problem management acts as an entry point into IT service
continuity management where a significant problem is not
resolved before it starts to have a major impact on the
d) Service Level Management:
- Problem management contributes to improvements
in service levels, and its information is used for some
SLA review components.
- SLM provides parameters within which problem management
3) Interfaces with Service Transition
a) Change Management:
- Problem management ensures resolutions/workarounds
that require a CI change are given to change management
- Change management tracks changes, advises problem
b) Service Assets and Configuration Management:
Problem management uses the CMS to identify faulty CIs
and also to determine the impact of problems and resolutions.
c) Release and Deployment Management:
d) Knowledge Management: The SKMS can be used to form
the basis for the KEDB and hold or integrate with the problem
4) Interfaces with Service CSI
a) Seven step improvement Process:
- Incidents and problems are a basis for identifying
service improvement opportunities; adding them to the CSI
- Proactive problem management activities may identify
underlying issues that if addressed, can contribute to increases
in service quality and end user/customer satisfaction