Systems and Security : Architecture and Design
1.8 Summarize the basics of cryptographic concepts.
Cryptography is the practice of using mathematical algorithms to protect information by converting it into an unreadable format. The main cryptographic concepts include:
1. Encryption: the process of converting plaintext into ciphertext, which is unreadable without the proper decryption key.
2. Key management: the process of generating, storing, and distributing keys used for encryption and decryption.
3. Symmetric encryption: uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt data.
4. Asymmetric encryption: uses two keys, one for encryption and one for decryption.
5. Hash functions: a one-way mathematical function that takes an input (or "message") and returns a fixed-sized string of characters, which is unique to that input.
6. Digital signatures: a mathematical proof used to verify the authenticity of a digital message or document.
7. Certificates: digital documents that bind a public key to the identity of an individual, organization, or device.
8. Public key infrastructure (PKI): a system that manages public keys and digital certificates, and provides secure communication between parties.
9. Key exchange: the process of securely exchanging encryption keys between two parties.
10. Cryptographic protocols: established procedures that specify how encryption and decryption are performed in a secure manner.