3. TCP/IP protocol stack is installed by default when you
install Windows 2000 on a computer.
4. You can use Regional Options to support additional languages
on your computer. With the support of additional languages,
you will be able to edit documents written in those languages.
You can also set locale specific to any region using this Option.
5. The Windows 2000 Performance tool is composed of two parts:
a. System Monitor: With System Monitor, you can collect
and view real-time data about memory, disk, processor, network,
and other activity in chart (graph), histogram, or report
Some of the important System Monitor counters are:
1. Memory>Available Mbytes: measures the amount of
physical memory that is available. Typically > 4MB.
If less than 4 MB, consider adding more memory.
2. Memory>Pages/Sec: Shows the number of times that
the disk has been accessed, because requested information
was not available in memory. If the value of the counter
is not below 20, you should add more memory. A value
of 4 or 5 is typical.
3. Paging File>%Usage: Indicates the % of allocated
page file utilization. Should be less than 99%.
4. Processor>%Processor Time: measure the time that
the processor is busy. Should be typically less than
5. Processor>Interrupts/Sec: Indicates the average
number of hardware interrupts that the processor receives
each second. If more than 3,500, you can suspect a program
or faulty hardware.
6. PhysicalDisk>%Disk Time: Measures the amount of
time that the physical disk is busy servicing read or
write requests. If more than 90%, you can improve the
performance by adding another disk channel.
7. PhysicalDisk>%Current Disk Queue Length: indicates
the number of pending disk requests that need to be
processed. The value should be less than 2. The disk
problems might arise from less memory, resulting in
usage of excessive paging. Ensure that the memory is
sufficient before attending to the disk problem.
8. LogicalDisk > %Free Space counter: Indicates the
amount of logical disk's free disk space. Typical value
is 10% or above.
b. Performance Logs and Alerts: Through Performance Logs
and Alerts you can configure logs to record performance
data and set system alerts to notify you when a specified
counter's value is above or below a defined threshold.
6. Event Viewer maintains logs about program, security, and
system events. You can use Event Viewer to view and manage the
event logs, gather information about hardware and software problems,
and monitor Windows 2000 security events.
7. To open Event Viewer, click 'Start', point to 'Settings',
and then click 'Control Panel'. Double-click 'Administrative
Tools', and then double-click Event Viewer.
8. Encrypting File System (EFS) keeps your documents safe
from intruders who might gain unauthorized physical access to
your sensitive stored data by stealing your laptop or Zip disk,
or by other means.
9. You need to ensure the following before the upgrade:
a. The hardware is adequate for upgrading to Windows
b. Also, check the hardware, software adequacy by running
"Winnt32.exe / checkupgradeonly". Note that the switch "checkupgradeonly"
will output a report on the adequacy of hardware and software.
It will also warn you if any applications need upgrade packs,
which may be obtained from respective application vendors,
if available. If the software upgrade pack is not installed
for any application, the application may be rendered unusable!
10. If you are creating a Striped volume on a new Windows
2000 machine, it can only be created on dynamic disks. However,
if you are upgrading a Windows NT computer to Windows 2000,
any existing stripe set will be supported.
11. For creating Stripe set with parity, we need at least
3 disk volumes.
12. Placing the paging file on different physical disks is
optimal. This will improve faster access to the Paging file,
and also distribute the load.
13. Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Explorer can
be used for assigning Share and NTFS permissions on a Windows
14. To insert a new file extension, you use Windows explorer,
and select the application. Then, Tools -> Folder Option ->
File Types. Configure the extension appropriately.
15. Windows 2000 Operating systems support 5 different volume
a. Simple volumes :A simple volume consists of a formatted
disk on a single hard disk.
b. Spanned volumes: A Spanned volume consists of disk
space on more than one hard disk.
c. Striped volumes: A Striped volume has disk space on
2 or more disks. The disk spaces must be same on all disks.
Fastest disk access among all volume types. RAID level 0.
d. Mirrored volumes: A mirrored volume consists of a
Simple volume that is mirrored in total, onto a second dynamic
disk. Provides highest level of fault tolerance. RAID level
e. RAID-5 volumes: A RAID-5 volume consists of identical
sized disk space located on three or more dynamic disks.
Here any single disk failures can be recovered. RAID level
f. Note that Windows 2000 Professional doesn't support
Disk Mirroring, RAID-5 volumes, where as other Windows 2000
Operating Systems (2000 Server, Advanced Server) support.
16. Fault tolerance boot disk is a floppy disk that enables
you to boot a computer in the event that the first disk in a
mirrored volume fails. If you mirror the installation folder
in a Windows 2000 Server, you will not be able to boot because
boot.ini points to the first volume. Therefore, you need to
create a fault tolerance boot disk that contain an appropriately
edited Boot.ini file, that points to the mirrored volume.
17. By default, you can start recovery console (in Windows
a. The Windows 2000 Professional Setup Disks
b. From the CD ROM drive using Windows 2000 Professional
CD (if the CD-ROM drive is bootable).
c. Also, you can have "Recovery Console" as a start up
option by typing \i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons at the command
prompt, after switching to the CD ROM drive letter.
18. Windows 2000 provides two versions of Registry Editor
a. Regedt32.exe (32-bit): Regedt32.exe is automatically
installed in the systemroot\system32 folder.
b. Regedit.exe (16-bit): Regedit.exe is automatically
installed in the systemroot folder. c. Regedit.exe is primarily
used for its search capabilities as it doesn't support all
functions and data types.
19. On a Windows 2000 computer, the default spool folder
is located at: Systemroot\System32\spool\printers. For example,
if the OS is residing on C drive, the default location will
be: "C:\\WINNT\System32\spool\printers".You can access this
Start -> Printers -> File -> Server Properties -> Advanced
tab. Type in the new spool location over the default location.
20. Up-grade to Windows 2000:
a. You can upgrade Windows 95/98, Windows NT 3.51Work
Station, Windows NT 4.0 WS can be upgraded to Windows 2000
b. You can't upgrade Windows 3.1 and Windows for workgroups
to Windows 2000 Professional. If you need to install 2000
Prof. On Windows 3.x, you need to upgrade first to Windows
95/98 or NT and then upgrade to 2000 Prof. It is easy to
do a clean install of Windows 2000 on Windows 3.x machines.
c. You need to ensure the following before the upgrade:
a. The hardware is adequate for upgrading to Windows
b. Also, check the hardware, software adequacy by
running Winnt32.exe / checkupgradeonly.
Note that the switch "checkupgradeonly" will
output a report on the adequacy of hardware and software.
It will also warn you if any applications need upgrade
packs, which may be obtained from respective application
vendors, if available. If the software upgrade pack
is not installed for any application, the application
may be rendered unusable!
c. It is also recommended, if you are upgrading on
a large population, to upgrade only one work station,
and check whether the application softwares are running
21. By default, Windows 2000 stores a user's profile in the
C:\Documents and Settings\ user_name folder on the computer
the user logs on.When a new user logs on, his initial user profile
is an exact copy of either the local or domain-wide "default
user" profile folder.The local default user profile folder is
located in %root%\Documents and Settings.
22. If you have installed Windows 2000 in C drive, it is
C:\Documents and Settings.
23. Pressing F8 during boot process in Windows 2000 desk
top bring up the following options:
a. Safe Mode: Safe Mode loads only the drivers necessary
to get the desk top up and running. The drivers loaded with
Safe Mode include mouse, monitor, keyboard, hard drive,
and standard video driver.
b. Safe Mode with Networking: Safe Mode with Networking
is same as Safe Mode with networking enabled.
c. Safe Mode with Command prompt: Safe Mode with Command
Prompt option loads the command prompt instead of Windows
2000 graphical interface.
d. Enable Boot Logging
e. Enable VGA Mode: Enable VGA Mode option loads a standard
VGA driver. This option is good if you have any problem
with newly installed video driver.
f. Last Known Good Configuration: Last Known Good Configuration
enables the desk top to load the configuration that was
stored when it was booted successfully last time. This option
can't take care of any hardware related problems.
g. Debugging Mode: The Debugging Mode option runs the
Kernel Debugger, if that utility is installed.
h. Boot Normally: The Boot Normally is same as not pressing
the F8 key. The Windows boots normally
24. You can access Task Manager by pressing < Alt > < Ctrl
> < Del > The applications tab lists all the applications that
are currently running on the computer. The current status of
the application is also displayed as either "Running" or "not
responding" or "stopped".
25. Blue screen messages are also called STOP messages. You
will not be allowed to proceed, when a blue screen message appears.
The most likely cause of blue screen messages are:
a. Boot sector virus
b. IRQ/ IO address conflicts.
c. You can check for any boot sector virus, and also
for any conflicting IRQ / IO addresses.
26. You can configure support for multiple displays on your
Windows 2000 computer. This is done through the use of Control
Panel -> Display -> Settings. A Windows 2000 computer can support
up to ten display monitors at the same time. Use additional
video cards as required.
27. On a Windows 2000 computer, disk quotas can be used on
NTFS volumes. Windows Explorer can be used to configure and
monitor disk quotas.
28. On a Windows computer, you can use the View tab in Folder
Options applet in the Control Panel to show / hide files and
folders that have "Hidden" attribute set. You can also use Windows
Explorer -> Tools -> Folder Options -> View tab.
29. If you want to install Windows 2000 on the same partition
as that of Windows 98, install 2000 Professional either on the
FAT file systems or on the FAT32 for dual boot. Windows 98 supports
FAT (FAT16) and FAT32. It doesn't support NTFS file system.
30. The various file systems supported by Windows 2000 are:
a. FAT: Also called FAT16, supported by all Microsoft
b. FAT32: Also supported by Win 95 OSR2 and Win98
c. NTFS: This is not supported by Win95/98
d. CDFS (Compact Disk File System, used to access CDs)
e. UDF (Universal Disk Format, used to access DVDs)