Applications, Devices, & Protocols
Related To OSI Model
The following diagram provides a mapping of OSI to DoD
In the Application layer lies many of network aware programs
and services such as:
1. https (80) - HyperText Transport Protocol which
is used for transferring webpages.
2. SNMP (161/162) - Simple Network Management Protocol
which is used for managing network devices.
3. FTP (20/21) - File Transfer Protocol which is
used for transferring files across the network.
4. TFTP (69) - Trivial File Transfer Protocol which
is a low overhead fast transfer FTP protocol.
5. SMTP (25) - Simple Mail Tranfer Protocol which
is used for transferring email across the Internet.
6. Telnet (23) - An application for remotely logging
into a server across the network.
7. NNTP (119) - Network News Transfer Protocol which
is used for transferring news.
The numbers, shown in brackets next to the protocols, are called
the Well Known Port Numbers.
1.2 Classify how applications, devices, and
protocols relate to the OSI model lay
MAC Address : Data link layer
IP address : Network Layer
EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier): Data Link Layer
Frames : Data Link Layer
Packets: Network Layer
Layer-2 Switch: Data Link Layer
Router: Network Layer
Multilayer Switch: Data Link Layer and Network Layer
Hub: Physical Layer
Encryption devices: Presentation Layer
Cable: Physical Layer
NIC: Data Link Layer and Physical Layer
Bridge: Data Link Layer
1.3 Explain the purpose and properties of
IP addresses are written using decimal numbers separated by decimal
points. This is called dotted decimal notation of expressing IP
addresses. 2 types of IP addressing is used. 1. IP v4 addressing
and 2. IP v6 addressing convention.
The different classes of IP addresses is as below:
IP v4 Addressing:
Leading Bit Pattern
Network Address Range
Network address of all zeros means "This network or segment".
Network address of all 1s means " all networks", same as
hexadecimal of all Fs.
Network number 127 is reserved for loop-back tests.
Host (Node) address of all zeros mean "This Host (Node)".
Host (Node) address of all 1s mean "all Hosts (Nodes) " on
the specified network.
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