2. IP v6 addressing
1. IPv6 address is 128 bits in length represented in hexadecimal
2. IPv6 Loopback address is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1, also expressed as
3. IPv6 reserves two special addresses. They are 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0
4. Three transition strategies for migration from ipv6 to ipv4
are dual stacking, 6-to-4 tunneling and NAT-PT
IPv6 address consists of 8 groups of four hexadecimal digits
separated by colons and which mainly consists of 3 segments called
Global Prefix which is of 48 bits, subnet part with 16 bits and
Interface ID called as Host part with 64 bits. The first 3 octets
constitute Global Prefix, the fourth octet constitute subnet part
and the last four form the Interface ID.
a) One set of 0's in the address can be replaced by :: but
this can be done only once
b) One or any number of consecutive groups of 0 value can
be replaced with two colons (::)
It is a unique value associated with a network adapter. These
are also known as hardware addresses or physical addresses. It contains
12-digit hexadecimal numbers (48 bits in length)
By convention, MAC addresses are usually written in one of
the following two formats:
The first half of a MAC address contains the ID number of the
adapter manufacturer. The second half of a MAC address represents
the serial number assigned to the adapter by the manufacturer. In
the example, 00:A0:C9:14:C8:29
The prefix 00A0C9 indicates the manufacturer is Intel Corporation.
The number 14C829 is the serial number assigned by the manufacturer.
It is nothing but creating networks within a network. Subnetting
allows an organization with a single IP address (Class A /ClassB
/ClassC) to have multiple subnetworks, thus allowing several physical
networks within the organization.
Default subnet mask for Class A network: 255.0.0.0
Default subnet mask for Class B network: 255.255.0.0
Default subnet mask for Class C network: 255.255.255.0
The directed broadcast should reach all Hosts on the intended
network (or subnet, if sub netted). For example, the directed broadcast
address for an IP network 220.127.116.11 with default subnet mask
is 18.104.22.168. This is arrived by putting all 1s for the host
portion of the IP address.
Packets are sent from single source to specific destination.
There is only one sender and one receiver.
It uses IP delivery methods such as Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP),
which are session-based protocols
Examples FTP, Telnet
Packets are sent from one source to all other clients.
There is only one sender and all connected clients are
It is largely confined to local area network (LAN)
technologies, mostly Ethernet and token ring
Packets are sent from one or more sources to set
of receivers. There can be one or more senders and one
or more receivers.
It is useful if a group of clients require a common
set of data at the same time, or when the clients are
able to receive and store (cache) common data until
APIP (Automatic Private IP Addressing)
APIPA (Short for Automatic Private IP Addressing), is a feature
that allows DHCP clients to automatically self-configure an IP address
and subnet mask when a DHCP server isn't available. When a DHCP
client boots up, it first looks for a DHCP server in order to obtain
an IP address and subnet mask. If the client is unable to find the
information, it uses APIPA to automatically configure itself.. The
IP address range is 169.254.0.1 through 169.254.255.254. The client
also configures itself with a default class B subnet mask of 255.255.0.0.