1) Cover everything from configuration items (servers,
infrastructure, documentation, services and configuration),
management systems and tools, processes, metrics, solution
and architecture from design strategy to continual service
management excluding organization and business changes,
and minor operational changes.
2) Manage all changes in a controlled manner on all
levels (strategic, tactical and operational) by making
reference to the service portfolio.
3) Change management is not responsible for the coordination
of processes for the successful implementation of projects.
This will be handled through the planning and transition
D) Types of change request
There are three service change types they are: Standard,
Emergency and Normal.
1) Standard Change: A pre-authorized change that is low
risk, relatively common and follows a procedure or work
2) Emergency Change: A change that must be implemented
as soon as possible, for example to resolve a major incident
or implement a security patch.
3) Normal Change: Any service change that is not a standard
change or an emergency change. Normal changes are often
categorized into three types:
Minor change - authorized by change management staff
Significant change - requires advice from change
advisory board (CAB)
Major change - requires change proposal, business
E) Change models
Change model is a repeatable way of dealing with a particular
category of change. Change Models defines specific agreed steps
that will be followed for a change of this category. Change
models may be very complex with many steps that require authorization
(e.g. major software release) or may be very simple with no
requirement for authorization (e.g. password reset).
Change models include:
1) Steps to handle the change, including issues and unexpected
2) Order steps should be taken, with dependences or co-processing
3) Responsibilities - who should do what?
4) Timescales and thresholds for completion of the actions.
5) Escalation procedures - who should be contacted and
F) Remediation Planning
Remediation is an action taken to recover after a failed
change or release. Remediation may include back-out, invocation
of service continuity plans, or other actions designed to enable
the business process to continue.
G) Change Advisory Board and Emergency Change Advisory Board
Change Advisory Board:
1) A group of people that supports the assessment, prioritization,
authorization and scheduling of changes.
2) A change advisory board is usually made up of representatives
from: all areas within the
IT service provider; the business; and third parties such
Emergency Change Advisory Board
1) A subgroup of the change advisory board that makes
decisions about emergency changes.
2) Membership may be decided at the time a meeting is
called, and depends on the nature of the emergency change.
H) Lifecycle of a Normal change
The Change Management Process consists of seven high-level
activities specifically developed to manage the life cycle of
change requests. Typical activities in managing individual changes
1) Create and record the Request for Change (RFC).
2) Review the RFC
a) Filter changes (e.g. incomplete or wrongly routed
3) Assess and evaluate the change
a) Establish the appropriate level of change authority
b) Establish relevant areas of interest (i.e. who
should be involved in the CAB)
c) Evaluate justification, impact, cost, benefits,
risks, and predicted performance
d) Submit a request for evaluation to initiate activity
from the change evaluation
4) Authorize the change
a) Obtain authorization/rejection
b) Communicate the decision with all stakeholders,
in particular the RFC initiator
5) Plan updates
6) Coordinate change implementation
7) Review and close change
a) Collate the change documentation, e.g. baselines
and evaluation reports
b) Review the change(s) and change documentation
c) Ensure lessons learned details are recorded in
d) Close the change document when all actions are
5.6.2 Release and Deployment Management
Release and Deployment management is a process responsible
for planning, scheduling and controlling the build, test and
deployment of releases, and for delivering new functionality
required by the business while protecting the integrity of existing
In the Release and Deployment management process different
considerations apply in respect of the way in which the release
is deployed. The most frequently occurring options for the rollout
of releases are: "big bang" versus phased, "push and pull",
automated or manual.
A) Purpose of Release and Deployment Management Process
1) The purpose is to ensure that consistent and integral
release packages are deployed in line with agreed policy
and with plans agreed with the customers and stakeholders,
and that this takes place under full and effective control.
2) Any associated business and business process changes,
including training and skills transfer, must be managed
to take place in a timescale that is aligned with the release
B) Objectives of Release and Deployment Management Process
1) The objective of release and deployment management
is to build, test and deliver the capability to provide
the services specified by service design.
2) to define and agree on deployment plan with stakeholders
3) Create and test release packages
4) Maintain the integrity of the release packages and
ensure that they are secured in DML.
5) Ensure the new / changed services meets utility and
6) Capture lessons learned
7) Ensure that skills and knowledge are transferred to
operations and support staff
C) Scope of Release and Deployment Management Process
1) The processes, systems, and functions required to
deliver a release into production
2) Build, ensure testing and deploy the release to the
utility and warranty requirements
3) Handover of service to operation teams
4) Manage all CIs and things related to the release.
D) Four phases of Release and Deployment Management Process
The process activities of release and deployment management
1) Release and Deployment Planning - begins with planning
a release and ends with change authorization to create the
2) Release Build and Test - the release package is built,
tested, and checked into the DML, end with authorization
to include the package in DML
3) Deployment - deploy the package from DML and handover
of service to operation, early life support might be needed
for faster response and knowledge transfer
4) Review and Close - experience and feedback are captured,
performance targets, achievements are reviewed and lessons
5.6.3 Knowledge Management Process
Knowledge Management is a process responsible for sharing
perspectives, ideas, experience and information, and for ensuring
that these are available in the right place and at the right
time. The knowledge management process enables informed decisions,
and improves efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge.
A) Purpose of Knowledge Management Process
The purpose of Knowledge Management is to ensure that the
right person has the right knowledge at the right time to enable
them to make sensible decisions about courses of action.
B) Objectives of Knowledge Management Process
1) Improve the quality of management decision-making
by ensuring that reliable and secure knowledge, information
and data is available throughout the service lifecycle
2) Enable the service provider to be more efficient and
improve quality of service, increase satisfaction and reduce
the cost of service by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge
3) Ensure staff have a clear and common understanding
of the value their services provide to customers and ways
in which benefits are realized from use of services
4) Maintain a service knowledge management system (SKMS)
that provides controlled access to knowledge, information
and data that is appropriate for each audience
5) Gather, analyze, store, share, use and maintain knowledge,
information and data throughout the service provider organization
C) Scope of Knowledge Management Process
1) the management of data and information across the
service management processes share of information with customers
2) NOT including the detailed collection and maintenance
(in Service Asset and Configuration Management)
D) Data-to-Information-to-Knowledge-to-Wisdom (DIKW) structure
Knowledge Management is typically displayed within the Data-to-Information-to-Knowledge-to
Wisdom (DIKW) structure.
1) Data -- discrete facts about Events. Most organizations
capture significant amounts of data in highly structured
databases such as service management and service asset and
configuration management tools/systems and databases.
2) Information - comes from providing context to data.
Information is typically stored in semi-structured content
such as documents, email and multimedia. The key knowledge
management activity around information is managing the content
in a way that makes it easy to capture, query, find, re-use
and learn from experiences so that mistakes are not repeated
and work is not duplicated.
3) Knowledge - includes tacit experiences, ideas, insights,
values, and judgments of individuals. People gain knowledge
both from their own and from their peers expertise, as well
as from the analysis of information
4) Wisdom - makes use of knowledge to create value through
correct and well-informed decisions. Wisdom involves having
the application and contextual awareness to provide strong
E) Service knowledge Management System (SKMS)
SKMS is a set of tools and databases that are used to manage
knowledge and information. The SMKS includes the Configuration
Management System, as well as other tools and databases. The
SKMS stores, manages, updates and presents all information that
an IT Service Provider needs to manage the full Lifecycle of
One very important part of the SKMS is the configuration
management system (CMS). The CMS describes the attributes and
relationships of configuration items, many of which are themselves
knowledge, information or data assets stored in the SKMS.